The United States and China are at a turning point in their investment relationship. China’s previous investments in the US were predominantly in government securities, while other holdings were negligible. Recently, the accumulation of treasury securities has slowed and direct investments by Chinese firms have risen steeply, with Beijing signaling greater support for portfolio investment outflows as well. This article describes the nascent shift in patterns of Chinese investment in the United States and uses the case of direct investment to examine the implications for US-China relations. We discuss current and future policy issues presented by Chinese foreign direct investment (FDI) in the US, including national security, market access and antitrust.