The overall conclusion for the case study sectors is as signalled for ease of economic activity more generally that there is a high but not perfect correlation between competition laws and market conditions and outcomes. Competition laws generally make a significant positive contribution, but are not the sole determinant of how well markets behave and perform. Other influences can compensate for less developed competition laws or detract from more developed competition laws. The implication for policy makers is that developing, implementing and enforcing competition laws may not be sufficient to achieve competitive market conditions and outcomes in all sectors, nor necessary for some sectors, but can generally be expected to be significantly conducive.
Competition policy in ASEAN – Case studies
ASIA Pacific Economic Papers No. 374, 2008