Is household income enough for human development or should government direct resources towards the provision of social services to improve capabilities of individuals? The former is emphasised by the World Bank, and the latter by the United Nation Development Programme (UNDP). This paper tests both sides of the question by estimating a basic needs policy model for Pakistan, using cross-district data for the year 1998-99. The results are consistent with the view that government provision of social services affects human capabilities significantly. However, the ultimate constraints on the sustainable capability development are the availability of material resources.
Income, Public Social Services, and Capability Development: A Cross-district Analysis of Pakistan
PIDE Working Papers 2008:43