I estimate the gradient among children 0 to 14 years old across different age groups using data from Indonesia. I find that while the gradient is strong among the very young, it gets weaker and almost disappears among children older than 6. I find that unequal mortality of children by socioeconomic status depresses the gradient among children 3 years old or younger. I also find evidence that limited access to private healthcare providers decreases the gradient among children 4 to 12 years old. Schooling, on the other hand, is found to have a positive impact on health status of children from low-SES families but little impact on health status of high-SES children. It weakens the gradient among school-age children.
What Determines the Gradient among Children in Developing Countries? Evidence from Indonesia
Paper No. 2006/02 - Dec 2005